external pagenorthafricapost.comexternal page Rabat - Polisario appears to be satisfied with the recent development in Morocco-Saudi Arabia diplomatic ties. In a recent interview with Algerian news agency APS, Polisario’s “Ambassador” to Algiers Abdelkader Taleb Omar thanked Saudi Arabia for reconsidering its position on the Western Sahara conflict.texasexes.org He also commended the grand reforms made by King Salman of Saudi Arabia, including Western Sahara, because the conflict has enjoyed “reconsideration” from Saudi Arabia. The separatist also condemned the EU-Morocco fisheries and agriculture agreements, claiming that Western Sahara is “separate” from Morocco. While Morocco and the international community consider Morocco’s autonomy plan a realistic solution to the conflict, Omar implied that Polisario will not accept it.
“Morocco’s representative said that there is no negotiations outside autonomy. We reject this statement,” said the separatist. Morocco’s Permanent Representative to the UN Omar Hilale made the remarks about the autonomy plan in January. On January 29, the Personal Envoy of the UN Secretary-General Horst Kohler briefed the Security Council on the conflict and announced his plan to invite the parties involved in the conflict to a second roundtable. After the meeting of the Security Council, Hilale qualified how much Morocco is willing to negotiate while speaking to the press. “We are ready to negotiate it and give it the largest operative power for the autonomy. The Moroccan government participated in the first roundtable in years in December to evaluate the parties’ readiness to discuss negotiations to end the conflict. Morocco also went to the roundtable to remind the international community of its principles, that it will accept no solution if it is against its territorial integrity and sovereignty over the region. Kohler is set to meet with the parties involved in the conflict again to discuss the date and place for the second roundtable. The meeting is expected in March.
While there are rich phosphate deposits in Bou Craa, the land is some of the world’s most arid and inhospitable. There are few natural resources outside of the phosphate deposits and fishing waters. Off-shore oil has been speculated but not confirmed and it is not known if they could be exploited. The applicability of agreements for exploitation with companies and the two claimed governments are unknown and subject to different legal opinions. The economy centers on fishing, herding, and phosphate mining. Food is mostly imported and the Moroccan government controls all trade. Morocco has encouraged its people to relocate to the area with subsidies and price controls.
Sahrawis are Western Sahara’s indigenous population. They are of mixed Arab-Berber heritage and a Hassaniya-speaking. They are traditionally nomadic Bedouins. The Sahrawis are a nomadic or Bedouin tribe that speaks the Hassaniya Arabic dialect. This is also spoken in a large part of Mauritania. They claim to descend from the Beni Hassan, a Yemeni tribe that allegedly migrated to the area in the 11th century. While they are nearly physically identical to the Moors in Mauritania, their tribal affiliations and exposure to Spanish colonials set them apart. Other areas were under French control. The Sahrawis are mostly Sunni Muslims. Pre-Islamic Berber and African practices influence their religious customs. Urban practices are very different. Unlike those in urban areas, Sahrawi Islam does not typically use mosques.
Updated on January 31, 2012 Anthony M. Wanjohi moreContact Author There are a number of factors that affect the participation of girl child in education. The major factors highlighted in this article include but may not be limited to socio-cultural, economic, geographical, health and political factors. Socia-cultural Factors. A major deterrent to girl child education is a near universal fundamental cultural bias in favor of boy child. Economic Factor.Together with the fundamental socio-cultural bias in favor of males, the economic factor, especially in terms of grinding poverty and hunger, is probably the most influential in adversely affecting female participation in education, especially in rural areas.
Geographical Factor. This relates directly to difficulties of physical access, which adversely affect girls more than boys. Patterns of transportation and migration affect educational provision of girl child. Girl child, being the weaker sex, often fall victim of rough terrain and long distances to and from school. In the end, the ‘endangered girl’ child may not be in position to make it through in school. The final result is either dropping out of school or poor academic performance that can not guarantee a bright tomorrow. Health Factor. In general, the effect of poverty and malnutrition on the health of school age children falls harder on girls than boys. Boys may get preferential feeding, while girls (who have a heavier domestic work load) are more likely to be undernourished.
Even if they get to school, this adversely affects their performance and therefore retention rate. Conclusion. The biggest challenge in promoting girl child participation in education in Sub-Sahara Africa is how to change the societal female perception in a male dominated Society. This is possible but may take a long period of time. The initiatives can only succeed if they are driven from within (community level) with external support by government and members of local and international organizations. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. 0 of 8192 characters usedPost CommentNo HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.
WOMEN AND GIRL CHILD EMANCIPATION IS LONG OVERDUE. WOMEN LED COUNTRIES ARE SEEMINGLY BETTER MANAGED THAT THOSE LED BY THE RADICAL MEN. IT WILL TAKE LONG FOR WOMEN TO TAKE A LEADING ROLE FOR AS LONG AS THEY ARE DEPRIVED OF EDUCATION. Indeed it is high time women are given a place in society. They have been ignored for too long. I will encourage kenpro to keep on publishing insightful articles on hubpages. Let the past negative perceptions of our grands about the girls be changed and we are all encouraged to join our efforts to support girl child education in order to see a better Africa. OUR MENTALITY AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS A GIRL CHILD IN TERMS OF INVESTING IN HER AND TAKING THE TURN-OVER AWAY TO HER HUSBAND MUST CHANGED. WOMEN ARE THE FOUNDATION FOR ANY MEANINGFUL AND BALANCED DEVELOPMENT.
Whenever I visit the Sahara I am struck by how sunny and hot it is and how clear the sky can be. Aside from a few oases there is little vegetation, and most of the world's largest desert is covered with rocks, sand and sand dunes. The Saharan sun is powerful enough to provide Earth with significant solar energy. The statistics are mind-boggling. If the desert were a country, it would be fifth biggest in the world - it's larger than Brazil and slightly smaller than China and the US. Global horizontal irradiation, a measure of how much solar power received per year.
Each square metre receives, on average, between 2,000 and 3,000 kilowatt hours of solar energy per year, according to NASA estimates. 2, that means the total energy available - that is, if every inch of the desert soaked up every drop of the sun's energy - is more than 22 billion gigawatt hours (GWh) a year. In fact, its output would be equivalent to more than 36 billion barrels of oil per day - that's around five barrels per person per day. In this scenario, the Sahara could potentially produce more than 7,000 times the electricity requirements of Europe, with almost no carbon emissions.
What's more, the Sahara also has the advantage of being very close to Europe. The shortest distance between North Africa and Europe is just 15 km at the Strait of Gibraltar. But even much further distances, across the main width of the Mediterranean, are perfectly practical - after all, the world's longest underwater power cable runs for nearly 600 km between Norway and the Netherlands. Over the past decade or so, scientists (including me and my colleagues) have looked at how desert solar could meet increasing local energy demand and eventually power Europe too - and how this might work in practice. And these academic insights have been translated in serious plans. The highest profile attempt was Desertec, a project announced in 2009 that quickly acquired lots of funding from various banks and energy firms before largely collapsing when most investors pulled out five years later, citing high costs.
Such projects are held back by a variety of political, commercial and social factors, including a lack of rapid development in the region. More recent proposals include the TuNur project in Tunisia, which aims to power more than 2 million European homes, or the Noor Complex Solar Power Plant in Morocco which also aims to export energy to Europe. There are two practical technologies at the moment to generate solar electricity within this context: concentrated solar power (CSP) and regular photovoltaic solar panels. Each has its pros and cons. Concentrated solar power uses lenses or mirrors to focus the sun's energy in one spot, which becomes incredibly hot.
This heat then generates electricity through conventional steam turbines. Some systems use molten salt to store energy, allowing electricity to also be produced at night. CSP seems to be more suitable to the Sahara due to the direct sun, lack of clouds and high temperatures which makes it more efficient. However the lenses and mirrors could be covered by sand storms, while the turbine and steam heating systems remain complex technologies. But the most important drawback of the technology is its use of scarce water resources. Photovoltaic solar panels instead convert the sun's energy to electricity directly using semiconductors. It is the most common type of solar power as it can be either connected to the grid or distributed for small-scale use on individual buildings.
Also, it provides reasonable output in cloudy weather. But one of the drawbacks is that when the panels get too hot their efficiency drops. This isn't ideal in a part of the world where summer temperatures can easily exceed 45℃ in the shade, and given that demand for energy for air conditioning is strongest during the hottest parts of the day. Another problem is that sand storms could cover the panels, further reducing their efficiency. Both technologies might need some amount of water to clean the mirrors and panels depending on the weather, which also makes water an important factor to consider. Most researchers suggest integrating the two main technologies to develop a hybrid system. Just a small portion of the Sahara could produce as much energy as the entire continent of Africa does at present. As solar technology improves, things will only get cheaper and more efficient. The Sahara may be inhospitable for most plants and animals, but it could bring sustainable energy to life across North Africa - and beyond. Amin Al-Habaibeh, Professor of Intelligent Engineering Systems, Nottingham Trent University. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
The Sahara Desert is the world's largest HOT desert (the largest desert being Antartica). It covers 9 400 000 km² (almost as large as Europe or the United States). It's highest point is Emi Koussi (11 204 ft/ 3 145 m) and it's lowest point is Qattara Depression (-436 ft/ -132.9 m). The Sahara Desert is located in the northern part of Africa and covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritiana, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia. The Sahara Desert has an arid climate and a mean temperature of over 30°C. The temperature varies from 50°C during the day in summer to temperature below 0 at night in summer. The Sahara Desert receives very little rain and wind and sand storms occur as soon as early spring.
The Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is an approximately 2,700 km (1,700 mi) long structure, mostly a sand wall (or ” berm “), running through Western Sahara and the southwestern portion of Morocco. Moroccan-occupied and -controlled areas (the Southern Provinces) on the west from the Polisario -controlled areas (Free Zone, nominally Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) on the east. The fortifications lie in uninhabited or very sparsely inhabited territory. They consist of sand and stone walls or berms about 3 m (10 ft) in height, with bunkers, fences and landmines throughout. The barrier minebelt that runs along the structure is thought to be the longest continuous minefield in the world.
Military bases, artillery posts and airfields dot the Moroccan-controlled side of the wall at regular intervals, and radar masts and other electronic surveillance equipment scan the areas in front of it. Physically, the berm is a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high wall (with a backing trench), which rides along a topographical high point/ridge/hill throughout the territory. Spaced out over every 5 km (3.1 mi) are big, small and medium bases, with approximately 35-40 troops at each observation post and groups of 10 soldiers spaced out over the distance as well. About 4 km (21⁄ 2 mi) behind each major post there is a rapid reaction post, which includes backing mobile forces (tanks, etc).
A series of overlapping fixed and mobile radars are also positioned throughout the berm. The radars are estimated to have a range of between 60 and 80 km (37 and 50 mi) into the Polisario controlled territory, and are generally utilized to locate artillery fire onto detected Polisario forces. Information from the radar is processed by a forward-based commander, who contacts a rear-based artillery unit. In all, six lines of berms have been constructed. The main (“external”) line of fortifications extends for about 2,500 km (1,600 mi). It runs east from Guerguerat on the coast in the extreme south of Western Sahara near the Mauritanian town of Nouadhibou, closely parallelling the Mauritanian border for about 200 km (120 mi), before turning northwards beyond Techla.
It then runs generally northeastward, leaving Guelta Zemmur, Smara, crossing again Mauritanian territory and reaching Hamza in Moroccan-held territory, before turning east and again closely following the Algerian border as it approaches Morocco. A section extends about 200 km (120 mi) into southeastern Morocco. Significant lines of fortifications also lie deep within the Moroccan-controlled area. Their exact number and location are a source of some confusion for overseas commentators. All major settlements, the capital Laayoun, and the phosphate mine at Bou Craa lie far into the Moroccan-held side. Their main function is to exclude guerrilla fighters of the Polisario Front, who have sought Western Saharan independence since before Spain ended its colonial occupation in 1975, from the Moroccan-controlled part of the territory.
tripadvisor.co.zaEffectively, after the completion of the wall, Morocco has controlled the bulk of Western Sahara territory that lies to the north and west of it, calling these the kingdom's ” Southern Provinces “. The Polisario-founded Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic controls the mostly uninhabited ” Free Zone “, which comprises all areas to the east of the barrier. Units from the United Nations mission MINURSO separate the two sides, and enforce cease-fire regulations on their troops. In the summer of 2005, the Moroccan Army accelerated the expulsion (started in late 2004) of illegal immigrants detained in northern Morocco to the eastern side of the wall, into the Free Zone.
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