external frameexternal site There is growing recognition that cities, which already house more than half the world’s population, require increased policy and development attention. India’s policy response to the need for sustainable, resilient and low-carbon cities is the Smart City mission. In this conception of a Smart City as the driver of local economic growth, technology and “smart solutions” find repeated mention, while better planning and greenfield development, beyond current city boundaries, are expected to absorb a growing urban population. US 1.05 billion) in 2014, 100 satellite towns of larger cities are meant to be developed as Smart Cities.(Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Canberra_From_Black_Mountain_Tower.jpg) Additionally, existing, mid-sized cities are to be developed under the programme.
(Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/ISBT_Amritsar.jpg)The initial allocation has been hiked by more than two and half times and several incentives have been provided to encourage foreign investment into the programme. The institutional mechanism for implementation is a special purpose vehicle, which would be run like a private company for the duration of implementation, and will have representation from all levels of government. The one challenge that is featured on the MoUD website, which smart cities apparently face and should address, is how to involve smart people in the planning phase and how to garner city leadership to ensure programme success. A gaping hole in the conception and components of a Smart City is exactly how a special purpose vehicle would enable these wide-ranging elements and solutions with the participation and support of affected communities.
Would citizens be engaged when designing smart city solutions? Would participatory governance go beyond issuing death and birth certificates in response to e-requests? Would lakes and urban forestry be revived to provide critical ecosystem services as new infrastructure is instated? Would access to public spaces improve for the underprivileged in our society? Would the new smartness integrate with the history and heritage of many of India’s smaller cities? Ostensibly not. The ministry has adopted an area-based approach, which means that strategies such as retrofitting, redevelopment, greenfield applications and pan-city endeavours will be applied to pre-determined geographical areas specified by urban local bodies.
This spatial conception of cities lacks an understanding of cities as deeply connected social and ecological systems, which may not be conveniently divided into geographical areas. There is limited understanding of how city systems of food, water, energy and waste interact and overlap through resource flows and people movement. Cities’ resource and sink needs extend far into their surrounding regions, which is why a region-based approach is recommended when seeking sustainable solutions. India Prime Minister Modi’s Smart City vision is an attempt to answer the national call for economic growth, employment creation, world-class cities, better living standards and municipal reform.
However, it fails to take cognizance of the global challenges of climate change, poverty, inequality and unsustainable development. These challenges are no longer the purview of national departments, as they manifest in multiple forms within the cities of both the developed and developing world. And furthermore, should cities such as Bangalore, on a very fast growth trajectory, adopt a much broader and deeper vision than the one captured in a smart agenda? The United Nations’ seventeen new global goals, called Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), defined by 169 targets, have been formulated after a widely participatory consultation process hosted by the UN. SDGs, post the 2015 development agenda, call for commitment to universal goals and targets. As has been discussed at length on TNOC, for the first time, there is now an urban development goal: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
Let us consider how the urban SDG Goal 11 frames the developmental challenges faced by cities all over the world, and the propositions it puts forth in the form of dedicated urban targets. Goal 11 emphasizes equitable access to affordable housing, basic services, transport and public spaces for all urban citizens. Integrated planning and management in cities such that cultural and natural heritage are protected, links with national and regional development planning are strengthened, and buildings are designed for resilience, are all goals that find dedicated targets within the urban SDG. Several sustainability concerns are incorporated, including reduction of the ecological footprint of cities, inclusion and resource efficiency. Integrated policies that address climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as disaster risk management at all levels, are encouraged.
Special focus is recommended for the needs of those in vulnerable situations: women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. In this conception of the urban agenda, and the subsequent articulation of a global goal into measurable targets, the need for building capacity in urban officials and enhancing their agency in city matters has been left out. Bangalore is the fifth largest and one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities in India. The city faces numerous risks to its future development as its population and geographical expanse increase. Ironically, the city also faces reduced availability and regular access to quality of water supply. The city relies on Cauvery River, 100 kilometers away, for half of its water needs, and on extraction of ground water for the remaining half.
The Karnataka State Climate Change Plan estimates that total rainfall could reduce by as much as 10-20 percent by 2050 in the region, deepening the water stress experienced by the city. In a city of stark socio-infrastructural dichotomies, high rise air conditioned glass office complexes, private residential enclaves and ‘gated communities’ contrast with poorly, or under served, dense informal settlements and slums. A large number of migrants are drawn to the city in search of improved livelihood options. For first generation migrants, informal settlements or slums often provide an entry to the city. New migrants to most urban areas in India are dependent upon the marginal work available within the informal economy, characterized by very low wages and high job insecurity. In pursuing “smartness,” will Bangalore be able to address the challenges it has accumulated over thirty years of unsustainable urban growth?
Would it, instead, be pursuing smartness if it were to adopt an integrated social ecological frame? If yes, what does it require to become a sustainable, smart, socially and ecologically integrated city? The Smart City mission has a very narrow focus, which does not address the risks that a city of the size and on the development trajectory of Bangalore faces. The pursuit of smartness as defined by the Smart City Mission may help achieve better traffic management and extend IT services to underserved sections of society. However, if a large proportion of the society is not literate, or lacks basic services in their settlements, or faces employment insecurity, smarter solutions will be required to take citizens towards sustainable well-being.
Bangalore is better off channeling the intelligence of its citizens towards community-led, locally embedded initiatives, in response to particular societal and environmental challenges. Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) (2014). Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) - Future Proofing Indian Cities, Final Urban Diagnostics for Bangalore. Krishna, A., Sriram, M. S., & Prakash, P. (2014). Slum Types and Adaptation Strategies: Identifying Policy-Relevant Differences in Bangalore.(Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Shivaji_Statue,_Parbhani.jpg) Mahadevia, D. (2008). Metropolitan Employment in India. MoUD, 2015 “What is Smart City” Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Poonacha P., Solomon D., Bendapudi R., Rahman A., Basu R., Badiger S (2015) The Regional to Sub-national Context. In: Revi, A., Amir Bazaz, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Ramkumar Bendapudi, Marcella D’ Souza, Sumetee Pahwa Gajjar (eds.). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid areas in India (pages 49-90). Working Paper, ASSAR PMU, South Africa. Dr Sumetee Gajjar researches and writes on urban policy, climate change and urban nature. She is former Lead Practice at Indian Institute for Human Settlements, and joins ICLEI-Africa as Senior Professional Officer.
Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) and other companies to provide technical services supporting the agency’s role in India’s smart city development. The India Smart Cities Challenge is a competition designed to inspire and support municipal officials as they develop [[http://prestigesmartcity.grihhpravesh.com/|Prestige Smart City Plots]] proposals to improve residents' lives. Pratap Padode of the Smart Cities Council India explains that the best proposals receiving funding from the Ministry of Urban Development.(Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Hezbollah_ZU-23-2_anti-aircraft_gun.jpg) Asia’s smart cities: Are they doing it right? Cities worldwide are working to bend technology to create efficient, prosperous and livable smart cities that will meet growing demands for services and accommodate rapidly growing populations.
Asia is no different, with one glaring exception: the needs and challenges may not be quite the same as they are elsewhere. Read more about Asia’s smart cities: Are they doing it right? India's 2015-2016 Union Budget stayed away from using the term smart cities, unlike the one in 2014-2015 which made special mention. But that doesn’t imply that the Indian government has lost interest in a smarter country. Pratap Padode explains why. India is opening the flood gates, allowing a long string of partners and consultants in to help achieve its ambitious smart cities goals. Find out how the work is progressing (and who may be left behind). One of the questions remaining about India’s ambitious plan to have 100 smart cities is where the money will come from to develop them. Find out how investors may play a key role. The new government in India is keen on infrastructure development and modernization. It also wants to build 100 new smart cities.
There isn’t a single, or universally acknowledged definition of a Smart City. However, at Seat Pleasant, we believe Smart Cities are the future of innovation because Smart Cities have the potential to solve fundamental human problems and challenges including social injustice, inequality, poverty, and sustainability to name a few. We believe Connectivity across all domains is the key to becoming an authentic Smart City. In addition, Smart Cities are about achieving a more perfect union, where City Governments and City Residents are Connected. A City whose Government, Businesses, and Residents are in sync is one best equipped to deliver the services people need and want.
IBM Global Entrepreneur program recently concluded a nationwide challenge in the space of Smart City that saw participation from startups from different areas, such as - Energy & Utility, Transportation, Sanitation, Water, Citizen Management, Safety and Surveillance and Agritech. Sterlite Technologies was an Associate sponsor for the event, with Vanitha Narayanan, MD, IBM India and John Gallagher, IBM Global Head of Programatic and Performance Marketing, gracing the event as guests of honour. After reviewing several applications from all over the country, the panel shortlisted 10 innovative startups. Here are the startups which are building solutions to promote creation of smart cities in India.
Zippr is an 8-character address format that replaces the traditional door number with a unique digital ID; fundamentally transforming how locations are referenced, shared and navigated to, within emerging markets. Their patent-pending road-based encoding technology is being implemented across India via the government. A closed-loop ecosystem is being formed with citizens, governments and businesses using Zippr as the pervasive address currency for transactions and logistics. WeDoSky has the capability to operate drones for aerial shoots, process data and generate intelligence to provide relevant solutions. Parking is fundamental to sustainable urban development. Not only do inefficient parking systems result in congestion and increased carbon emissions, they also waste commuters time, lost productivity and economic opportunities and can lead to inefficient city services. Unorganised parking creates problem on multiple fronts. Get My Parking‘s technology digitises any type of parking for best ROI possible.
Its suite of applications and services makes a complete smart parking ecosystem which serves the suppliers (API integration), parking management (enterprise solutions), government (smart city) and the consumers (discovery and transaction app). With increasing pollution and industrialization, pollution has become an important issue in every urban space. Oizom solution “Polludrone” is a low cost, compact, eco-friendly and scalable solution for the mentioned problem. It is a solar powered IoT Air-Quality monitor. It works on patent pending technology and measures Particulates, Toxicity, Odour, Radiation, Light, Noise etc. on real-time basis. Polludrone is capable to measure all the parameters included as a compliance by central pollution control board. It is enabled with smart reporting using our cloud analytics platform “Oizom Terminal” and mobile app Air-Quality India.
(Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Asian_Black_Bear_Ursus_thibetanus_by_Dr._Raju_Kasambe_02.jpg)Flamencotech wants to become an overlay to all technologies making it the command and control centre application for Smart Cities. It aggregates various alarms notifications and then intelligently analyse and take action accordingly. By 2050, world’s population is set to rise to 9 billion. With arable lands decreasing the only way to feed the population is through increased yield. TartanSense‘s mission is to bring actionable intelligence to the agricultural sector using precision data and machine learning through UAVs. 14 billion dollar TAM. LoudCell products help customers eliminate energy wastage, manage their energy generation from grid, solar and diesel generators, and their energy consumption.
It provides insights to the customers in the form of a single dashboard, analytics and intelligent alerts. It’s able to provide this by developing technology for IoT based sensors, remote hardware, and our cloud based middle-ware and intuitive dashboard and reports. The conventional electric grid is plagued by demand-supply mismatch, huge revenue losses and infrastructure that cannot handle two way grid flow w.r.t. Maintenance costs of this network infrastructure is also very high. Esyasoft is developing an integrated solution comprising the Smart Grid functional specifications. It aims to innovate new functionalities using Business Intelligence & Analytics and contribute towards the evolution of Smart Grid space in India.
The platform will integrate complete Power System value chain using Information & Communication Technologies. Quenext has a platform that integrates data from a multitude of data sources i.e. distribution SCADA system, transmission SCADA, meter Data management system and telemetry data. Apart from these, the system is fully integrated with all weather stations across India, moreover the system has the ability to integrate with remote sensing satellite imagery. The system generates both real time and near term forecast of load and availability across energy mix both at system level as well as for various injection and sink points. The optimizer sitting on top of this intelligence with ability to handle such large optimization problem with non-convex constrain sets, is able to optimize controls real time.